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Modern day Equivalents of Garum

 

By Rebecca Davies FdSc Archaeology (Plymouth).

 

Umami is one of the five basic tastes, along with Sweet, Salt, Acid, and Bitter. Popularised in Japan in the early 20th Century, it is triggered by glutamates, hence the widespread use of Monosodium glutamate as a flavour enhancer.

So, what does Umami taste like? Think of Marmite. Foods rich in Umami are things like fish, tomatoes, cabbages, and yeast. This quality is brought out by pickling and preserving. This means Umami products are often sauces, such as soy sauce, tomato ketchup, and Marmite. Victorian recipe books contain many recipes for “Store sauces.” Chutneys were introduced from India by the East India Company and it was found that the leftover juices from these recipes could be used as a sauce. All these recipes have a few things in common; they keep well, indeed many of them are improved by keeping, and they are all high in Umami. From this list, we can see that different variations of fish sauce are popular condiments. A world famed modern day survivor of Victorian recipes is Worcester sauce. The exact recipe by Lea and Perrins is a closely guarded secret. However there are many similar store sauces on the market such as Thai fish sauce and Henderson’s relish. You can of course make your own. Here are just a few examples of Store sauce recipes.

 

WORCESTER SAUCE

2 oz. Shallots (50g) 4 cloves Garlic 2 tsp fresh grated Horseradish 2 tsp Cayenne pepper 6 Cloves 4 pieces bruised root Ginger 4 Cardamom pods 10 Black peppercorns 2 fluid oz. Soy sauce 60ml 1 pint malt Vinegar 600ml 2 tsp Sugar Chop shallots and garlic, boil for 15 minutes in the vinegar. Add all other ingredients and boil for 30 minutes. Cool, transfer to jar and leave a month, shaking occasionally. At the end of the month, strain and re bottle.

 

NUNS SAUCE

3/4 oz. Cayenne pepper 18g 2 tbs Soy sauce 3 Cloves garlic 1 tin Anchovies 6 Cloves 3 or 4 Shallots 1 tbs Sugar 1 quart Vinegar 1200ml Pound all dry things together. Add chopped onions and vinegar. Put in wide mouthed jar and shake every day for a month. Strain and rebottle.

 

QUINS SAUCE

Quart walnut pickle 1 pint mushroom ketchup 600ml 12 Anchovies 3 tbs Soy Sauce. 1 tsp Mace 6 Cloves 12 Black peppercorns 6 Bay leaves 6 Shallots 1/2 pint red wine or port 300ml Chop shallots and garlic, boil for 15 minutes in the vinegar. Add all other ingredients and boil for 30 minutes. Let cool, transfer to jar and leave a month, shaking occasionally. At the end of the month, strain and re bottle.

 

For more sauce ideas check out “The Penguin Book of Jams, Pickles and Chutneys.” By Mabey, D: Mabey, D and R (1976) The Penguin Book of Jams, Pickles and Chutneys, Middlesex, Penguin. Beeton, I. (Unknown date) Mrs Beeton’s Jam making; Preserves, Marmalades and Pickles, London, Ward Lock.

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Experimental Archaeology, Garum

Experimentation

The first recipe of our experimental Garum used (approx.) 230.0g of whole sprats, 1.0g of sardine intestines, 46.0g of salt, and a generous amount of mint and bay leaves. The ingredients were ground together using a pestle and mortar and the resulting mixture was put into a beaker and left overnight to ferment. Within 18 hours of the initial experiment, a liquid had formed around the bottom of the beaker. The mixture was taken and transferred into weighed beakers for further, long-term fermentation.

The second experimental recipe used only the guts and tails from sardines. The bodies of these fish were then used in a later recipe. The guts and tails were placed into a container with 16.3g of salt or 20% the weight of the fish. As with the first recipe, the mixture was left overnight to begin its fermentation. On the second day of the experiment, the mixture was reweighed and moved into a sealed jar for safer storage. The gross weight was 294.6g therefore the tare weight was 216.4g. The initial fermentation of the fish within 18 hours can be seen in the featured image.

Our third and final experimental on Garum recipe used 490.6g of sardines (the intestines from which were used in the previous recipe) and 965.0g of salt.  Firstly, gutted & tailed sardines were marinated with salt (490.0g used) on both the inside and outside. A further 475.0g of salt were then added to cover the fish completely. Repeating the first two recipes, the mixture was left for 18 hours to undergo initial fermentation.

As with our first recipe, a small amount of liquid from the fish had collected in the bottom of the tub when we returned the next day. It was noted, to our Surprise, the overnight fermentation had produced little-to no smell inside the laboratory!